# 8.3.8. Solids Phase¶

## 8.3.8.1. SOLIDS_MODEL(PHASE)¶

Data Type: CHARACTER

• $$1 \le Phase \le 10$$

Defines the model used for the solids phase. For TFM/DEM hybrid simulations, first define all TFM solids, then define the DEM solids phases.

Table 8.57 Valid Values

Name

Default?

Description

TFM

Two-fluid Model (continuum)

DEM

Discrete Element Model

PIC

Multiphase Particle-in-Cell

## 8.3.8.2. MMAX¶

Data Type: INTEGER

Applies to Solids Model(s): TFM, DEM

Number of solids phases.

## 8.3.8.3. D_P0(PHASE)¶

Data Type: DOUBLE PRECISION

• $$1 \le Phase \le 10$$

Applies to Solids Model(s): TFM, DEM

Initial particle diameters [m in SI].

## 8.3.8.4. RO_S0(PHASE)¶

Data Type: DOUBLE PRECISION

• $$1 \le Phase \le 10$$

Applies to Solids Model(s): TFM, DEM

Specified constant solids density [kg/m^3 in SI]. Reacting flows may use variable solids density by leaving this parameter undefined and specifying X_S0 and RO_XS0 as well as the index of the inert species.

## 8.3.8.5. X_S0(PHASE, SPECIES)¶

Data Type: DOUBLE PRECISION

• $$1 \le Phase \le 10$$

• $$1 \le Species \le DIM{\_}N{\_}s$$

Applies to Solids Model(s): TFM, DEM

Baseline species mass fraction. Specifically, the mass fraction of an unreacted sample (e.g., proximate analysis).

## 8.3.8.6. RO_XS0(PHASE, SPECIES)¶

Data Type: DOUBLE PRECISION

• $$1 \le Phase \le 10$$

• $$1 \le Species \le DIM{\_}N{\_}s$$

Applies to Solids Model(s): TFM, DEM

Specified constant solids species density [kg/m^3 in SI].

## 8.3.8.7. INERT_SPECIES(PHASE)¶

Data Type: INTEGER

• $$1 \le Phase \le 10$$

Applies to Solids Model(s): TFM, DEM

Index of inert solids phase species. This species should not be a product or reactant of any chemical reaction.

## 8.3.8.8. DIL_INERT_X_VSD(PHASE)¶

Data Type: DOUBLE PRECISION

• $$1 \le Phase \le 10$$

Applies to Solids Model(s): TFM, DEM

Mass fraction of inert solids phase species in the dilute region. In dilute region (see DIL_FACTOR_VSD), the solids density is computed based on this inert species mass fraction, rather than the current inert species mass fraction. This may help convergence when the Variable Solids Density model is invoked.

## 8.3.8.9. DIL_FACTOR_VSD¶

Data Type: DOUBLE PRECISION

Applies to Solids Model(s): TFM, DEM

Factor to define the dilute region where the solids density is set using DIL_INERT_X_VSD. Cells where the solids volume fraction is between DIL_EP_S and DIL_EP_S x DIL_FACTOR_VSD will automatically set the solids density using DIL_INERT_X_VSD instead of the current inerts species mass fraction. Set this factor to zero to always use the current inert species mass fraction.

## 8.3.8.10. K_S0(PHASE)¶

Data Type: DOUBLE PRECISION

• $$1 \le Phase \le 10$$

Applies to Solids Model(s): TFM, DEM

Specified solids or material conductivity [J/(s.m.K) in SI].

## 8.3.8.11. KS_MODEL(PHASE)¶

Data Type: CHARACTER

• $$1 \le Phase \le 10$$

Applies to Solids Model(s): TFM, DEM

Solids (TFM) or particle (DEM) thermal conductivity model for each phase.

Table 8.58 Valid Values

Name

Default?

Description

NONE

(TFM or DEM). K_s0 is set to 0 (no conduction). In DEM, calculations are skipped.

CONST_EFF

(TFM only). K_s0 specifies a constant effective solids phase conductivity.

USR

(TFM only). K_s0 is set based on user defined function.

Bauer

(TFM only). K_s0 specifies the material conductivity. See Bauer, R. and Schlünder, E.U. (1978). Int. Chem. Eng. 18(2), 181.

Musser

(DEM only). K_s0 specifies the material conductivity. See Musser, J. (2011), PhD Dissertation, WVU. Chapter 3 (3.6).

## 8.3.8.12. C_PS0(PHASE)¶

Data Type: DOUBLE PRECISION

• $$1 \le Phase \le 10$$

Applies to Solids Model(s): TFM, DEM

Specified constant solids specific heat [J/(kg.K) in SI].

## 8.3.8.13. MW_S(PHASE, SPECIES)¶

Data Type: DOUBLE PRECISION

• $$1 \le Phase \le 10$$

• $$1 \le Species \le DIM{\_}N{\_}s$$

Applies to Solids Model(s): TFM, DEM

Molecular weight of solids phase species [kg/kmol in SI].

## 8.3.8.14. NMAX_S(PHASE)¶

Data Type: INTEGER

• $$1 \le Phase \le 10$$

Applies to Solids Model(s): TFM, DEM

Number of species comprising the solids phase.

## 8.3.8.15. SPECIES_S(PHASE, SPECIES)¶

Data Type: CHARACTER

• $$1 \le Phase \le 10$$

• $$1 \le Species \le DIM{\_}N{\_}s$$

Applies to Solids Model(s): TFM, DEM

Name of solids phase M, species N as it appears in the materials database.

## 8.3.8.16. SPECIES_ALIAS_S(PHASE, SPECIES)¶

Data Type: CHARACTER

• $$1 \le Phase \le 10$$

• $$1 \le Species \le DIM{\_}N{\_}s$$

Applies to Solids Model(s): TFM, DEM

User defined name for solids phase species. Aliases are used in specifying chemical equations and must be unique.