Facilities

Multiphase Flow Science Laboratory Facilities

NETL has been performing fluidization research for over 50 years – studying fluidization technologies applied to coal combustion, gasification, and emissions clean-up.  The MFS Laboratory Facility includes several cold-flow and low-temperature reacting experimental units representing a broad range of sizes and fluidization conditions.  The test units include:

Industrial-Scale Circulating Fluidized Bed (CFB): This unit includes a 30 cm (12 in) diameter riser in a circulating fluid bed configuration nearly 18m (60 ft). The CFB operates at ambient temperature and pressure and is heavily instrumented with traditional and advanced measurements to provide well-characterized data over different length and time scales. Maximum air flow rate that a single flow loop can provide is 70,000 slpm (150,000 SCFH). Many sections of the CFB are clear acrylic for easy visualization of gas and solids flow patterns in riser, crossover, standpipe and L-valve sections.   The CFB has 75 process measurements including 21 separate differential pressure transducers on the riser alone to allow macro-scale and meso-scale features such as the pressure profile across the riser, and pressures in the entrance and outlet regions to be characterized.  The following diagnostic techniques are available:

  • Electro-Capacitance Volumetric Tomography (ECVT) to measure bubble velocity, frequency, diameter;
  • High Speed Particle Imaging Velocimetry (HS-PIV) to measure local particle velocity, trajectories, fluctuations, granular temperatures, and local solids fraction;
  • Laser Doppler Velocimetry (LDV) for local gas and particle velocities;
  • Gas and solids tracers such as
    • Phosphorescent particles to measure dispersion, solids circulations, flow distribution;
    • He and CO2 gases (velocities, dispersion);
  • Optical particle velocity probes for particle, bubble, and cluster velocities;
  • Local solids flux probe to measure flow profiles;
  • Particle characterization for size distribution, minimum fluidization, and particle densities;

Rectangular Fluidized Bed (RFB) – This acrylic unit supported the recent NETL Small Scale Challenge Problem I.  It is a 7.5 cm x 23 cm x 122 cm (3 in x 9 in x 48 in) rectangular bed with air flow up to 12,000 slpm (25,000 scfh).  The bed allows for low (1 Hz) and high speed (100 Hz) differential pressure transmitters and optical access for high speed video and High Speed PIV, and LDV measurements.

Rig 01: Bubbling Fluidized Bed Validation Rig (BFB) – This acrylic unit supports bubbling bed measurements in a range of bed diameters from 2.54cm (1 in) to 15.24 cm (6 in) over a broad range of air, nitrogen, and CO2 flows.  Instrumentation includes low (1 Hz) and high speed (100 Hz) differential pressure transmitters, CO2 analyzers, thermocouples, and mass flow controllers, and optical access for high speed video and High Speed PIV.

Rig 02: Micro Fluidized Bed (mFB) –The mFB is a rectangular acrylic bed with dimensions 0.32 cm x 10 cm x 43 cm  (0.125 in x 4 in x 17 in) designed for very detailed measurement of bubbling bed hydrodynamics and can handle CO2 adsorption/desorption testing at temperatures < 80C.  Instrumentation includes low (1 Hz) and high speed (100 Hz) differential pressure transmitters, CO2 analyzers, thermocouples, and mass flow controllers, and optical access for high speed video, High Speed PIV and LDV.

Rig 03: Mini Circulating Fluidized Bed (mCFB) – the mCFB is an acrylic, small scale circulating fluidized bed with riser diameter of 2.54 cm (1 in), riser height of 122 cm (48 in), and standpipe diameter of 5.08 cm (2 in).  The bed is designed for detailed measurement of riser, crossover, cyclone, standpipe, and L-valve flows.  Instrumentation includes low (1 Hz) and high speed (100 Hz) differential pressure transmitters, thermocouples, and mass flow controllers, and optical access for high speed video and High Speed PIV.

Rig 04: Mini Fixed Bed (mFXB) – the mFXB is a small-scale acrylic unit designed for fixed bed operations for detailed measurement of heat transfer and CO2 adsorption chemical kinetics.  The cylindrical bed is 2.54 cm (1 in) in diameter and 12.7 cm (5 in.) long.  The bed allows for gas preheat up to 90C with multiple thermocouple locations for axial and radial temperature measurements.