Daniel A. Clarke, Andrew J. Sederman, Lynn F. Gladden, and Daniel J. Holland, "Investigation of Void Fraction Schemes for Use with CFD-DEM Simulations of Fluidized Beds", Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research 2018 57 (8), 3002-3013, DOI: 10.1021/acs.iecr.7b04638
Abstract: This paper investigates the spatial resolution of computational fluid dynamics–discrete element method (CFD-DEM) simulations of a bubbling fluidized bed for seven different void fraction schemes. Fluid grids with cell sizes of 3.5, 1.6, and 1.3 particle diameters were compared. The particle velocity maps from all of the void fraction schemes were in good qualitative agreement with the experimental data collected using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Refining the fluid grid improved the quantitative agreement due to a more accurate representation of flow near the gas distributor. The approach proposed by Khawaja et al. [ J. Comput. Multiphase Flows 2012, 4, 183−192] provided the closest match to the exact void fraction though only the particle centered method differed significantly. These results indicate that the fluid grid used for CFD-DEM simulations must be sufficiently fine to represent the inlet flow realistically and that a void fraction scheme such as that proposed by Khawaja be used.
Keywords: CFD-DEM, Fluidized Beds