Liqiang Lu, Sofiane Benyahia, "Chapter Two - Advances in Coarse Discrete Particle Methods With Industrial Applications", Advances in Chemical Engineering, Volume 53, 2018, Pages 53-151, doi: 10.1016/bs.ache.2017.12.001
Abstract: This chapter provides the full description of a coarse-grained discrete particle method based on a novel hard-sphere contact model for the simulation of industrial-scale fluidized bed reactors. This method is based on simple models that are easy to understand and implement in numerical codes. This technique is verified and validated for several small-scale fluidized systems where numerical data based on finer methods as well as experimental data are available. The speed of execution of this method is increased several orders of magnitudes compared to particle-based discrete methods, which allows for thousands of seconds of flow, heat, and mass transfer simulations of industrial reactors such as fluidized catalytic cracking regenerator, Methanol to Olefins reactor, and Rare Earth Elements leaching reactor, achieved in just few days using commonly available computer resources. It is now possible for the common engineer to conduct simulations of large-scale fluid–particle reactors to understand, design, and troubleshoot, as well as optimize the performance of these complex multiphase flow systems.
Keywords: Coarse-grained particle methodHard sphereComputational fluid dynamicsFluidized bedFluidized catalytic crackingMethane-to-olefinRare earth elements