Yupeng Xu , Jordan Musser, Tingwen Li, Balaji Gopalan, Rupen Panday, Jonathan Tucker, Greggory Breault, Mary Ann Clarke, and William A. Rogers, "Numerical Simulation and Experimental Study of the Gas–Solid Flow Behavior Inside a Full-Loop Circulating Fluidized Bed: Evaluation of Different Drag Models", Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., 2018, 57 (2), pp 740–750, doi: 10.1021/acs.iecr.7b03817
Abstract: Both experimental and computational studies of the fluidization of high-density polyethylene (HDPE) particles in a small-scale full-loop circulating fluidized bed (CFB) are conducted. Experimental measurements of pressure drop are taken at various locations along the bed. The solids circulation rate is measured with an advanced particle image velocimetry (PIV) technique. Bed height of the quasi-static region in the standpipe is also measured. Comparative numerical simulations are performed with a computational fluid dynamics solver utilizing a discrete element method (CFD-DEM). This paper examines the effect of different drag laws used in the CFD simulations through a detailed and direct comparison with experimental data from a small-scale, full-loop circulating fluidized bed. The Hill–Koch–Ladd drag correlation was shown to have good agreement with respect to system component pressure drop and inventory height in the standpipe.
Keywords: Fluidized bed, drag model