Francia, V. W., Kaiqiao; Coppens, Marc-Olivier. "Dynamically structured fluidization: Oscillating the gas flow and other opportunities to intensify gas-solid fluidized bed operation," Chemical Engineering and Processing - Process Intensification Vol. 159, 2021, p. 108143. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cep.2020.108143. (https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S025527012030605X)
Abstract: Various approaches to structure gas-solid fluidized beds are reviewed, followed by detailed discussion on the use of gas pulsation to induce dynamic structuring. Granular media are dissipative systems, which develop complex spatiotemporal patterns when excited by an oscillating energy source. Here, we discuss how such perturbations initiate surface patterns and how these could propagate into a macroscopically organized flow. We call this dynamically structured fluidization. Vibrated shallow granular layers form ordered surface waves. The hydrodynamics of pulsed gas-fluidized layers are related, but more complex: Under appropriate conditions, surface waves transition into a three-dimensionally ordered bubbling flow. This occurs in much deeper granular beds than under vibration, indicating distinct physics. In this dynamically structured state, bubbles organize into a scalable sub-harmonic, triangular lattice that is highly predictable and responsive to changes in oscillation parameters, allowing for an unprecedented level of control. Structured bubbling is observed only under sufficiently dense conditions; thus, a dynamically structured fluidized bed sits between fixed and fluidized beds, offering opportunities for process intensification, due to less macromixing than traditional fluidization, but a higher level of control through micromixing. This informs new intensified designs for processes that are highly exothermic, involve particle formation, thermally sensitive or high-value materials.
Keywords: Fluidization; Intensification; Oscillatory flow; Structuring; Pulsation; Dynamics