Particle Dynamics Laboratory
The NETL Particle Dynamics Laboratory is used to conduct multiphase flow experiments at larger scales than those typically conducted in the Multiphase Flow Analysis Laboratory. The range of equipment sizes provided in the MFAL and PDL allows for the examination of the effects of scale on multiphase flow hydrodynamics. The PDL laboratory contains numerous examples of different types of common multiphase flow reactor systems, including circulating fluidized beds, spouted beds, and other novel reactor concepts.
Large Scale Cold Flow Circulating Fluidized Bed
The centerpiece of the Particle Dynamics Laboratory is the Cold Flow Circulating Fluidized Bed (CFCFB). The CFCFB is a 0.3m (12-inch) diameter, 15m (~50 ft) tall circulating fluidized bed with integrated air heaters and steam boiler to facilitate temperature and humidity control for minimization of static buildup via tribo-electric charging of particles during operation. In addition to low speed process temperature and pressure sensors located throughout the entire unit, the riser and standpipe sections feature numerous transparent acrylic sections to allow for direct visual observation and high speed imaging of the flow dynamics during operation, as well as numerous ports to allow for insertion of fiber optic and sampling probes for direct measurement of radial profiles of fluidization characteristics such as particle velocities and concentrations, as well as gas mixing via gas sampling devices.
Small Scale Circulating Fluidized Bed (SSFB)
The 4-inch diameter Small Scale Circulating Fluidized Bed (SSCFB) is approximately a 1/3-scale version of the larger CFCFB riser with a modified cyclone/standpipe/L-valve assembly designed to alternatively be used with the 12-in x 3-in Rectangular Circulating Fluidized Bed (RCFB). Both units are approximately 16-ft in height. The SSCFB allows for experimental studies of scaling effects of hydrodynamic characteristics via comparison to the larger CFCFB unit. While the RCFB was constructed for the purpose of facilitating the study of the effects of jet impingement on bed hydrodynamics via high-speed video.
Small Spouted Bed Reactor (SSBR)
The SSBR unit is a small modular slot-rectangular spouted bed with a cross-section of 1-in x 4-in used for studying the effects of variable geometry on the hydrodynamic characteristics of spouted beds. The lower cone section is interchangeable, allowing for easily changing the bottom bed geometry. Experiments have been conducted using flat bottoms, as well as cone-shaped sections with cone angles of 45, 60 and 75 degrees. Additionally, the unit is designed to allow for the use of different 3d printed gas nozzle designs to allow for studying the effects of nozzle shape and size on the spouting characteristics.