Jiang, M. Z., Yu; Yu, Yaxiong; Zhou, Qiang. "A scale-independent modeling method for filtered drag in fluidized gas-particle flows," Powder Technology Vol. 394, 2021, pp. 1050-1076. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.powtec.2021.08.092. (https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0032591021007956)
Abstract: A scale-independent modeling method for filtered drag force is proposed for coarse-grid simulation of fluidized gas-solid flows based on the fine-grid data generated using kinetic theory-based two-fluid method in periodic sedimentation systems. In the modeling process, the filtered solid volume fraction at a larger scale whose side length is three times of the filter size is introduced as a new marker. New developed closures show an excellent performance in a priori test, and exhibit a fairly good agreement with the fine-grid data and the experimental data in a posteriori test for three typical fluidized regimes including bubbling, turbulent and fast fluidized beds. Furthermore, the available correction methods to consider the effect of the material properties via adding a multiplicative factor are tested. The results show that these correction methods are not suitable for the considered cases.
Keywords: Multi-phase flow; Fluidization; Scale independence; Inhomogeneous drag model; Two-fluid model