Breard, E. C. P., Dufek, J., Fullard, L., Tennenbaum, M., Fernandez-Nieves, A., and Dietiker, J.-F. "Investigating the rheology of fluidized and non-fluidized gas-particle beds: implications for the dynamics of geophysical flows and substrate entrainment," Granular Matter Vol. 24, No. 1, 2022, p. 25.
Abstract: Natural geophysical mass flows are among the most complex granular systems and their dynamics are often modified by the presence of an interstitial fluid. Prediction of their runout requires the development of models estimating the solid stresses in these hazardous currents wherein excess pore-fluid pressure can develop. We use discrete element modelling (DEM-CFD) with a Coarse-Graining post-processing technique (CG) to investigate the rheology of unsteady gas-particle fluidized to non-fluidized granular beds placed on horizontal and inclined planes. Similar to fluidized beds immersed in viscous fluids, the effective friction coefficient of air-fluidized beds can be defined as a function of the classic mu(I)-rheology and the non-dimensional fluid or solid pressure to explain the failure and dynamics of granular flows with excess pore pressure on inclines. However, dilation imposed by fluid drag and particle collisions in gas-particle fluidized beds can drastically change its effective frictional properties. In contrast with the common assumption in water-particle flows that granular temperature is negligible, in our gas-particle simulations, the contribution of the velocity fluctuations to the stress tensor is significant. Hence, the shear stress is found to be non-zero even when the flow is fully fluidized in the inertial regime. These results suggest the need to better understand velocity fluctuations to predict the effective viscosity of sheared fluidized mixtures and are relevant for many applications. Notably, a unified approach is useful for many geophysical flows that encompass a range of fluidization conditions in a single flow such as pyroclastic density currents and snow avalanches.
Keywords: Rheology; Fluidization; Pore pressure; Geophysical flow; Friction; Dilation; Pyroclastic; Density currents; pyroclastic density currents; mfix-dem software; granular flows; pore-pressure; heat-transfer; model; transport; volcano; erosion; solids; Materials Science; Mechanics; Physics